Different kinds of weaves
In the plain weave, each weft thread pass alternately, in eah row, above then under each chain thread.
Those textiles are slightly solid and durable. They can be produced from all textile fibres and have no back and front.
The plain weave
The twill create diagonal lines : the weft thread pass under one then two (or more) other chain threads by shifting one thread at each passage, hence the skew effect on the spot.
Those cloths have therefore a front and back well marked.
Depending on the number of chain threads overlapped, we get different effects such as the rafters or hound's feet.
Twills are generally rougher than plain weaves, one of the most common examples is denim (jeans.)
The satin is a flexible, shiny on the front and mate on the back, soft cloth that drapes itself beautifully.
It is a twill weaving where the weft thread overlap four or more chain threads before repassing under a thread and going again. This weave must have at least 220 threads per inch (2,54 cm).
the fact of overlapping as much chain threads gives shine and softness effect. It also makes the sapin more fragile and subject to snags.
Beware ! Currently, you can find fake sapins whose threads are put under chemical products to give them a satin effect.
Cambric or batiste
The batiste is a thin linen or cotton cloth whose weaving is dense. This cloth is from the Cambrai region. It is a process of Baptiste Cambray that allows a thiner cloth. You soak the linen or cotton for weeks in such a way as to extract fibres intended for the thread manufacture. Given the fibre soaking, the batiste cloth is grey at first, then white.
The chevron is a weaving in twill. the twill design is then mounted in more or less high spikes. Chevrons can have simple spikes or multiple ones and can be symmetric or asymmetric.
Beware, nowadays, wa also call chevron cloth a type of cloth whose design imitates the chevron weaving.
The crepe is made with a strongly twisted chain and/or weft thread. It can be silk, cotton, or wool. This thread twisting gives to the crepe a grainy, rough and wavy aspect, what makes it nearly wrinkle-free.
This kind of cloth is made with a strongly twisted silk chain and silk weft. The weft opacity contrasts with the chain's brilliance, the twisting gives a orange-peel "sparkling" aspect, characteristif of this fabric.
The flannel is a kind of weave whose weaving is loose : 82 threads per inch. Originally, it was made in carded wool, and now in brushed cotton. The cotton can be brushed on the two sides. This fabric is fluffy and soft to the touch.
The jersey cloth isn't woven but knitted. Originally, it was made in wool, but wowadays, you can also find Jersey in cotton and in synthetic fibres. the fact that the tread is knitted gives to the Jersey its elasticity. Otherwise to the weaves in chain and weft, Jersey cloths don't unravel when you cut them.
Stiff woollen cloth, tighly wonen, with a little felted aspect. It is used for coats and suits.
The molleton is a cloth realized from woollen, silk or brushed cotton on one or both sides threads. It is soft, warm and mellow.
The percale is a cloth whose weaving is of 1/1, one chain thread taken, one blown off. It is therefore a tight weaving already. But in adition to that, to be able to call itself percale, a fabric has to possess at least 200 weft and chain threads per inch (2,54 cm). The weaving is thus very tight, what makes a flexible, solid and soft fabric.
The terry cloth has 2 weft threads. The first one is woven in cloth with the chain thread, and the second in cotton, by being gently twisted, forms the loops. There can be lopps on one or both sides of the fabric. This weaving with loops makes its fabric absorbant.